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The immune system, your personal bodyguard

We all think we know the immune system. The term is actually self-explanatory and may have been overused recently by many people in all walks of life.

The outbreak of coronavirus has led to the recurrence of many myths that have been used in some cases, as a way to help prevent infection. From eating garlic to drinking vitamin C or drinking beef urine – the social media site was full of ‘advice’ to help ‘strengthen’ your immune system and keep you safe. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organizations around the world have been working hard recently to respond to false information and rumors on social media.

So, let’s take a look at the topic of immunology, find out how the immune system works and if there is anything we can do to help protect us from germs.

More Explanations to Continue:

The immune system is a complex immune system that protects the body against infections, viruses, fungi, parasites and other viruses.

Leukocytes are a type of blood cell that are produced in the bone marrow and bone marrow tissue. Also called white blood cells, leukocytes can be further divided into granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Nutrophils and monocytes are phagocytic, i.e. they remove germs by injecting them.

Antigen is a substance that can stimulate the immune response, especially lymphocyte function. An antigen can be a bacterium, a fungus, a virus, a poison or a defective or dead cell.

Immune research is known as immunology which is a branch of medical science and biology. The term ‘immunology’ was coined by Élie Metchnikoff, a Russian veterinarian known for his pioneering work in the field.

A Brief History of Immunology

Ancient world: The first mention of the concept of ‘insecurity’ comes from the Athenian historian and general, Thucydides, c. 460 – c. 400 BC. In 430 BC, in the second year of the Peloponnesian War, Athens was devastated by a plague that killed an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 people. Thucydides pointed out that people who have recovered from the disease can take care of the sick without becoming a second victim.

It was, however, for those who were recovering from an illness when the sick and the dying received great compassion. These knew what it was by experience, and now they had no fear of themselves; because the same man had never been attacked twice- he had never been killed at least. And such people not only received congratulations from others, but also themselves, in the joys of this period, half of them had the vain hope that they were in the future safe from any disease ’.

Early Middle Ages: In the 10th century AD, the Persian physician Rhazes became the first to distinguish smallpox from measles by giving an accurate description of each one. And for the first time in history, Rhazes set out to develop a theory of immunizations. He noted that survivors who had recovered from the smallpox wound had not recovered.

18th century: The work of English physician Edward Jenner paved the way for the discovery of a smallpox vaccine. Looking at the smallpox vaccine practice, Jenner showed that being infected with the simplest cow dung enables a person to fight off the deadly smallpox virus.

This practice was already practiced in China, India, Circassia, and West Africa. Injections involved the deliberate introduction of small amounts of fluid from smallpox into the skin. This practice often led to a very small response that caused smallpox infection.

19th century: French biologist, microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur set out what is now known as the pathogenesis of the virus. Through his research, he showed that microorganisms cause diseases that lead to an immune response in the body. Pasteur’s remarkable success in obtaining the first vaccines for bird flu, anthrax, and rabies has helped save many lives since then.

In the 19th century, immunology developed rapidly through the remarkable work of Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, both Nobel laureates.

20th century: In 1901, U.S. military physician Walter Reed identified the virus as human, with a yellow fever.

How do the Immune System Work?

The immune system relies on a horizontal immune system, i.e. natural immunity, flexibility and immunity. Physical barriers such as skin prevent germs from invading the body. When a physical barrier is broken, the innate immune system built into leukocytes will begin to function. The answer is inaccurate and as part of the process, leukocytes will detect and destroy viruses by contact or input – phagocytes.

Mutable antibodies are made up of antigens, B cells and T cells and produce a specific pathogen and antigen response. This allows for a strong immune response in which each virus will respond to a specific antibody B-specific antibodies are produced by B cells that lock down certain antigens, a process that provides the body’s defences against the same type of pathogen. T cells then destroy antigen-marked antigens by releasing cytotoxins. These agents penetrate the target cell membrane and cause apoptosis or planned cell death.

Immune systems are formed after the immune system is received by another person. For example, babies receive antibodies through the placenta from the mother. After birth, a large amount of antibodies are contained in the mother’s breast milk.

What is the Immune Response to COVID-19?

When the virus enters the body, it will first enter a few cells. These cells will be suspended from normal activity and reprogrammed to replicate the virus. The virus will then continue to infect other healthy cells. Congenital antibodies will be initiated early in the process, but the response will be non-viral. This activity will cause many symptoms such as headaches, fever, and muscle aches. At this point, the purpose of the innate immune system is to keep the body healthy until the immune system is active.

Varying immune systems begin to function over time. The reason is that this is a new virus that has never been encountered before. It therefore takes time to create certain antibodies – which occur between 2 and 3 weeks. Usually, when the body’s immune system activates the immune system, its immune system stops working. It has been noted, however, that in some patients this does not happen. The reproductive system continues its function which can lead to further inflammation and extensive damage to non-infected tissues. This is difficult to manage clinically and may result in the death of the patient. It is thought that people with comorbidities die as a result of increased stress caused by a viral infection and an overactive response of the innate immune system.

Can I keep the immune system balanced and healthy with food?

We have avoided using the term ‘strengthening the immune system’. The immune system is very complex, it is very difficult to ensure that it can be developed in any single action. The goal should be to try and keep your immune system balanced and healthy instead, with a healthy diet and lifestyle.

Although more research is needed in the case of COVID-19, a list of nutrients in certain foods can help the immune system fight off a cold or flu. In addition, certain foods can help reduce low-grade inflammation associated with lower levels of health, such as heart disease or diabetes. This is especially important as certain COVID-19 patients may exhibit severe inflammatory reactions that contribute to lung failure and death.

Nutrients that can aid in the immune response include vitamins A, C, D, E, B-6, folate, iron, zinc and selenium. Other promising results may be associated with whole foods such as turmeric, green tea, goji berry and broccoli.

Healthy foods should include citrus fruits, berries, broccoli, spinach, mushrooms, red peppers, sweet potatoes, shellfish, beans, almonds, hazelnuts, peanut butter, turmeric and tea. These foods may be especially helpful for older people who are often deprived of the nutrients they provide.

It is equally important to drink in moderation, not smoke, get enough sleep, reduce stress and exercise regularly

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